1 проникать, проходить сквозь
if liquid, gas etc permeates something, it enters it and spreads through every part of it:
The smell of diesel oil permeated the air.
Rain permeates through the ground to add to ground water levels.
2 пронизывать, пропитывать
if ideas, beliefs, emotions etc permeate something, they are present in every part of it:
Racism continues to permeate our society.
An emotional intensity permeates every one of O'Connor's songs.