1.5.6.1 Сводные таблицы и характерные ошибки

Приведены сводные таблицы образования Past Perfect Continuous в английском языке и кратко обсуждаются характерные ошибки, допускаемые в Past Perfect Continuous студентами, изучающими английский язык.
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Суммируем сказанное в таблицах.
Т1.1 Спряжение глагола to have.

I

Had

We

Had

You

Had

He

Had

She

Had

It

Had

They

Had

 

Т1.2 Утвердительные предложения

Подлежащее

Вспомогательный глагол

значащий глагол

дополнение

обстоятельство

I

had

been living

 

in London.

We

had

been playing

tennis

for hours.

You

had

been travelling

 

by bus.

She

had

been living

 

in London.

It

had

been raining

 

since Sunday.

He

had

been writing

a book

since morning.

They

had

been making

bread

for two hours.

T2.1 Вопросительные предложения  - общий вопрос

Вспомогательный глагол

Подлежащее

значащий глагол

дополнение

обстоятельство

Had

I

been living

 

in London?

Had

we

been playing

tennis

for hours?

Had

you

been travelling

 

by bus?

Had

she

been living

 

in London?

Had

it

been raining

 

since Sunday?

Had

he

been writing

a book

since morning?

had

they

been making

bread

for two hours?

 

T2.2  Вопросительные предложения  - Специальный вопрос

Вопросительное слово

Вспомогательный глагол

Подлежащее

значащий глагол

дополнение

обстоятельство

Where

had

I

been living

 

in London?

Why

had

we

been playing

tennis

for hours?

Why

had

you

been travelling

 

by bus?

Why

had

she

been living

 

in London?

Where

had

it

been raining

 

since Sunday?

What

had

he

been writing

 

since morning?

Why

had

they

been making

bread

for two hours?

 

Т3 Отрицательные предложения

Подлежащее

Вспомогательный глагол+ not*

значащий глагол

дополнение

обстоятельство

I

had not

been living

 

in London.

We

had not

been playing

tennis

for hours.

You

had not

been travelling

 

by bus.

She

had not

been living

 

in London.

It

had not

been raining

 

since Sunday.

He

had not

been writing

a book

since morning.

They

had not

been making

bread

for two hours.

* В разговорной речи и неформальном стиле используются краткую форму
hadn’t = had not

4 Характерные ошибки,  или на что следует обратить внимание.

О1 Ошибка выбора времени.

Мы подробно обсудим  Past Perfect Continuous  в сравнении с Past Perfect в разделе 1.5.7, так что в данном разделе мы этот анализ опускаем.

O2. Использование второй или третьей формы глагола.

Такие ошибки в этом времени довольно редки. Наиболее опасной ловушкой является использование третьей формы значащего глагола вместо четвертой, то есть причастия настоящего времени, как это сделано во втором примере ниже. В результате получается форма страдательного залога.

Пример.

He had been wrote a letter. – Неправильно!
He had been written a letter. – Неправильно!
He had been writing a letter. – Это правильно!